Reconstruction of three‑dimensional (3D) scenes has many important applications, such as autonomous navigation, environmental monitoring and other computer vision tasks.
Time‑correlated single‑photon counting (TCSPC) approach affords a number of potential advantages over non‑photon‑counting approaches, including improved depth resolution.
It is possible to retrieve 3D shape information directly from the scene and separate a target from background or foreground clutter by range gating, either in the sensor or by postprocessing.
The field of single‑photon detection and imaging is a rapidly expanding area of research, with single‑photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays becoming increasingly more widely used in areas such as fluorescence‑lifetime imaging microscopy, depth profiling and time‑of‑flight imaging.
Novel approaches and optical enhancements can ensure the most information is extracted as possible from a single‑photon imager.
Microfabrication methodologies allow the development of large format arrays of micro‑scale filters or lenses which can then be integrated with detectors to enhance performance.